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History of Health Care Assignment
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History of Health Care Assignment
1) the years of Christ: The story of the Good Samaritan from the bible contains the famous quote "take care of him and I will repay thee." This quote ushers a new attitude of social responsibility that laid the foundation for patient care. The quote itself suggests that the sick, regardless of whether they are poor or not, should always be cared for. (Jack Skahan)
2) 1746-1813: Benjamin Rush was one of the Founding Fathers. He was a writer, physician, educator, and humanitarian. Rush is an iconic figure in American history due to the fact that he was the Surgeon General for the Continental Army and he was an early opponent of slavery. Later in life he resided as a chemist and had his own clinical practice at the University of Pennsylvania. (Jack Skahan)
3) 1768-1837: Dubbed "The Father of American Surgery," Dr. Phillip Syng Physick was one of the most prominent medical figures of the 19th century. In the highlight of his career he had his practice at the Pennsylvania Hospital in which he treated many people with yellow fever. He is acclaimed for innovating surgical procedures and instruments such as the stomach pump,cataract surgery, needle forceps, and splints for treating dislocations. (Jack Skahan)
4) The age-old term "Lying in" refers to the period of time in which a woman must be confined before, during, and after childbirth. Hospitals adopted the term on a clinical level by having "lying in" departments such as the Pennsylvania Hospital which had it's first lying in department established in 1803. Once thought to be in the confinement of a home, childbirth has become the norm at hospitals, and mothers are still "lying in" in hospitals to this day. (Jack Skahan)
Matt Yen-13. Zacharius Jannssen invented something, what was it? In 1595 Zacharius Jannssen invented the compound microscope with his father. The both lived as glasses makers in Middleburg, Holland. The microscope could magnify an object from three to ten times its normal size.
1751-Dr. Thomas Bond and Benjamin Franklin founded the first hospital in the nation in Philadelphia in 1751. It was in association with the University of Pennsylvania. The hospital was created to care for the sick-poor and insane that were wandering the streets of Philadelphia. Bond was the one who came up with the idea of a hospital and Ben Franklin helped. Kayla Paulosky
1765-The nation’s first medical school was the University of Pennsylvania’s medical school now called Perelman School of Medicine. John Morgan founded the medical school in 1765. At the time it was founded it was called the College of Philadelphia, and students would enroll for “anatomical lectures” and “the theory and practice of physik”. John Morgan was a physician who studied in London at the University of Edinburgh. The medical school allowed students to study in the classroom but also work in the hospital down the street. Kayla Paulosky
1796- Bloodletting is a procedure that was preformed to help cure the ill. Doctors would open a vein to divert the blood from the problem area or use freshwater leeches to bleed someone. The purpose of bleeding someone was to cleanse and balance all humors by removing the “bad blood”. Emetics are agents that induce vomiting. They were used to detox and cleanse the body when people were sick. It was supposed to recall the humors from the innermost parts of the body. Doctors thought emetics released harmful accumulations, increased appetite, promoted digestion, and cooled of a person’s systems. Lastly, cathartics are substances taken orally that cause active movement of the bowel. Back then constipation was seen as a disease and cathartics were used to cleanse the digestive track and remove morbid humors. Kayla Paulosky
Matt Yen- Who is the “father of homeopathy?” What s homeopathy and where was it first practiced in Philadelphia?
In 1825 German immigrants brought homeopathy to America. Samuel Hahnemann is known as the “father of homeopathy.” He first published his ideas in 1796. Homeopathy is using very low concentrations of substances to allow the body to react safely. The substances used as medicine in homeopathy are diluted so much that they become non-toxic. The first school to teach homeopathy in America was the North American Academy of Homeopathic Healing Arthttp://www.drmasiello.com/homeopathy/history-of-homeopathy/
48. Who were Chang and Eng? What was unusual about them? Describe their life story in a few sentences. -Gavin
Chang and Eng were the conjoined twins from which the term "Siamese" twins comes from. They were originally from Thailand. They were conjoined at the sternum by a small piece of cartilage. They also had conjoined livers, however they were completely independent of one another. This liver is now on display in the Mutter Museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. If they were born today, modern surgical techniques could have easily separated them, however at the time of their birth the technology didn't exist to separate them. In 1829, Robert Hunter, a British businessman, discovered the twins and signed them to a contract to travel the world as a display. When their contract ended, they decided to settle down a live a normal life. In 1839, they found a plot of land in Traphill, North Carolina, where they settled down and became naturalized citizens. They opened a plantation and acquired slaves. They also changed their names to Bunker. In 1843, the twins were married. Chang was married to Adelaide Yates and Eng was married to Sarah Anne Yates. They quickly had children, Chang had ten and Eng had eleven. The wives of the two men bickered so much that two houses had to be built so the wives could be separate. During the Civil War, the two men both had sons fight for the Confederacy. They both survived, however the brothers lost land as a result of losing the war. They both died on the same day, January 17 1874.
^^ The Bunker Brothers
- The Institute of the Pennsylvania Hospital was a psychiatric hospital that opened in 1841 under its first superintendent, Dr. Thomas Story Kirkbride. Located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on 49th and Market St. it was also known as Kirkbride’s long after his death. Dr. Kirkbride instituted a new standard in psychiatric facilities with the Hospital’s opening. Then, most asylums housed their patients in the most horrific conditions including, chaining and crowding patients in rooms of questionable sanitation. Most often than not, patients were deprived of much-needed treatment and medication. Dr. Kirkbride, who had done research in another progressive asylum in Worchester, Massachusetts, instituted that the patients of the Hospital were to reside in private rooms, receive medical treatment, work outdoors and enjoy therapeutic recreational activities. This set of innovations became known as the Kirkbride Plan which is now used in many psychiatric hospital buildings across the United States.
5. The Institution at Pennsylvania Hospital is known for something special, what is it? - N.N
Matt Yen-16. Puerperal fever was at epidemic proportions during the 1800’s. What is Puerperal fever and who discovered a way to prevent it? How did he discover this? Puerperal fever is a disease caused by childbirth; its symptoms are abdominal pain, fever, and debility. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis discovered in 1847 that hand washing prevented the spread of puerperal fever. Semmelweis gained this idea after one of the doctors delivering babies died from an infection that he received from an open wound on his hand.
- Florence Nightingale 1820- 1910 "the Lady with the Lamp"- Florence Nightingale was a woman born to a wealthy family in England. Florence wanted to become a nurse and did so against her parents' wishes. Nursing at that time was a job for women of a lower class and her parents thought it was beneath her "station in life".
When Nightingale went to the hospital she was apalled at the conditions and was determined to reform them. She faced great discrimination as a woman and as a challenger of two male dominated societies , medicine and the military. Despite these obstacles she tended to the wounded in the Crimean War and later founded the first school for the fomal education of nurses at St. Thomas' Hospital. She was known as "The Lady with the Lamp" after her habit of making rounds at night.
Florence Nightingale "The Lady with the Lamp"
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43. For what is Karl Landsteiner known? -Gavin
Karl Landsteiner was an Austrian biologist and physician. He was born June 14, 1868 and died June 26, 1943. Landsteiner is known as the Father of transfusion and
for many things in the field of medicine. In 1900, he distinguished between the different blood types. In 1901, he discovered that the body had three blood types. As a result of his findings, the first successful blood transfusion took place in 1907. His work was also used for paternity in the late 1920s. In 1930, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries. During the 1910s, he and Erwin Popper identified and isolated the polio virus. In 1958, he was inducted into the Polio Hall of Fame.
1880 – 1959
- Marry McMillan was one of the pioneers of physical therapy. During World War I she was the first physical therapy aide and later oversaw the training of rehabilitation aids. McMillan was known as “The Mother of Physical Therapy”. In 1921, McMillan founded the American Women’s Physical Therapeutic Association (or the American Physiotherapy Association). During the polio epidemic, she led rehabilitation aides in the battle against the disease. McMillan also established one of the first courses of physical therapy in the U.S., at Reed College in Oregon. McMillan also went to China and established their first physical therapy training center at Peiping Union Medial College.
8. Who is Mary McMillan? What is she known as? - N.N
21. Who was Roentgen? What did he do? How is it helpful? - N.G.
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
, born March 27, 1845, was a German physicist who discovered x-rays or Roentgen rays. He was studying the effects of an electric current through a gas of extremely low pressure. On November 8, 1895, he discovered that, if the discharge tube is enclosed in a sealed, thick black carton to exclude all light, and if he worked in a dark room, a paper plate covered on one side with barium platinocyanide placid in the path of the rays became fluorescent. This is important because it shows a "picture" of the body without the need for surgery and it can show bodily anomalies. - N.G.
47. Who is Dr. Blalock? For what is he famous? -Gavin
Alfred Blalock was born on April 5, 1899 in Georgia. He received an undergraduate degree from the University of Georgia. Upon graduation, he enrolled in Johns Hopkins Medical School, from which he received his degree. After getting his doctorate, he became the chief surgeon at Vanderbilt University Hospital. In 1941, he become the Chief of Surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Blalock is famous for two things. While working at Vanderbilt Medical Hospital, Blalock discovered that surgical shock comes as a result of a loss of blood. He encouraged the use of blood plasma and white blood cells to prevent death from shock. This practice helped save many lives during World War II. Blalock is also know for his discovery of the Blalock-Taussig Stunt technique. The technique relieves the cyanosis from Blue Baby Syndrome (Tetralogy of Fallot). He developed the technique with the help of his life long assistant, Helen Taussig.
Born on June 7, 1909, Virginia Apgar was pediatric anesthesiologist. She was the first female to be named a professor at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Although there were few opportunities for female surgeons at the time, Apgar was able to develop the Apgar Newborn Scoring System (the Apgar Score), which warned the negative use of anesthetics during childbirth. This was the first standardized method of evaluating a newborn baby’s progression from outside the womb.
22. In 1910 the Carnegie Foundation published a report by Abraham Flexner? What was it about? What changes were made because of this report? - N.G
The Flexner Report
by Abraham Flexner was published by the Carnegie Foundation in 1910. It is said to be, "the most important event in the history of American and Canadian medical education." The report was a commentary on the condition of North American medical education in the early 1900s which gave rise to modern medical education. The report caused numerous reforms in the North American medical schools. At that time most medical schools were proprietary schools operating more for profit than education. Flexner proposed medical schools to follow German tradition of bio medical sciences along with hands on clinical training. - N.G.
23. Dr Eliza Taylor Ransom is known for something to help patient. What is it? - N.G.
Dr. Eliza Taylor Ransom
is known for forming the New England Twilight Sleep Association. The association is known for administering morphine to induce " twilight sleep" to pregnant women who were on the brink of giving birth. This mean t women were barely conscious through their deliveries. This causes the mother to feel no pain during child birth. This was then carried over and applied tom patients in other medical areas. - N.G.
– The University of Pennsylvania, under its Department for Mental and Nervous Diseases established The Pennsylvania Hospital School of Nursing for Men in 1914. It was the first training school for male nurses in the U.S. Leroy N. Craig was the man in charge of the project. The program was designed to give men a background in general nursing; then the graduates had the opportunity to specialize in psychiatric or urological nursing. By 1965, it had graduated 551 men. The same year, the school was dissolved and a co-educational program was to take its place.
University of Pennsylvania Health System Logo
6. In 1914, the first nursing school for men was established. On what two specialties did the curriculum focus? - N.N
24. Dr. Joseph DeLee believed something which influenced an important health related event? What did he believe? How was it important? - N.G.
Dr. Joseph DeLee
embarked on a fierce campaign to end midwifery. To him obstetrics was "held in disdain by the profession and the public" and that "allowing "women of the lowest classes" to practice obstetrics, would cause the public to not consider obstetrics a medical specialty. At the sixth Annual Meeting of The American Association for Study and Prevention of the Infant Mortality in Philadelphia, Delee made his argument to abolish the midwife role. The new standard for the future of childbirth was obstetrics. - N.G.
- Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. Before going on vacation Fleming had piled a number of petri dishes to the side so another doctor could use his bench while he was away. When he returned most of the dishes had been contaminated with mold. The mold on one of the dishes had killed the bacteria, staphylococcus aureus, that was growing on the dish. Fleming spent weeks growing mold, trying to determine what substance in the mold killed the bacteria. After talking with a mycologist he determined the mold to be a penicillin mold and called the active antibacterial agent in the mold, penicillin.
1946- On July 13 1946, a group of oxygen orderlies, now known as inhalation therapists, physicians, nurses, and other interested people founded the Inhalation Therapy Association. They met at the University of Chicago hospital. The profession of inhalation therapy was not official until April 15, 1947, when the Inhalation Therapy Association was legally chartered as a not-for-profit entity in the State of Illinois. Inhalation therapists use inhaled agents to treat respiratory diseases and conditions and to help people breathe better. The Inhalation Therapy Association is now called the American Association for Respiratory Care.
- Dr. Robert Bradley developed a method of childbirth including involvement of fathers. It is a twelve week course that teaches parents how to control the pain of childbirth. It advocates natural childbirth and uses the “husband coached” birthing technique. It uses deep breathing and relaxation exercises to cope with labor, not painkillers.
- Dr. Albert Sabin and Dr. Jonas Salk both announced their vaccines for the Polio virus in 1955. Salk’s vaccine used a dead strand of the virus, where as Dr. Sabin’s vaccine used a weakened strand. Sabin’s oral vaccine was proven to be 90% effective and protected against both paralytic and non-paralytic polio. Salk’s needle administered vaccine was very successful as well, yielding an 80% success rate but only protected against the paralytic polio. But until Sabin’s vaccine was licensed, the American Medical Association (AMA) urged the use of Salk’s vaccine. When the US made Sabin’s vaccine available, countries like Brazil and the USSR switched over from Salk’s preparation.
7. For which disease did Drs. Salk and Sabin discover vaccines? How were their discoveries different? - N.N
- La Leche League is an organization founded to help mother’s worldwide breastfeed through mother-to-mother support and promote a better understanding of breastfeeding. They promoted natural birth and childcare, especially in mother-child relationships. The name “La Leche” is Spanish for “the milk.” When the league was founded, words like “breastfeeding” weren’t really used publicly. “La Leche” became a code word for function of the league.
1967- Christiaan Bernard was a doctor at Groote Schuur Hospital. He led a team, which performed the first heart transplant on Louis Washkansky. He continued his continued his procedure with other terminally ill patients and achieved some successes. In 1974 he performed a double transplant, and in 1977 used an animal heart as a temporary transplant.
Anti-immune drugs caused Washkansky's death from pneumonia eighteen days later, but Barnard continued his edgy prodedures. His second patient, in 1968, survived nineteen months. Barnard retired from his position at Groote Schuur Hospital in 1983, and spent time after that at Baptist Medical Centre in Oklahoma, attempting to determine how to slow the aging process. -
- In 1970, the anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA) was licensed to prevent 18-year old to 65-year old individuals from being infected by this disease, caused by Bacillus anthracis bacterium.
external image biothrax_bottom-260x300.jpg
- The United States licensed the first vaccine for meningococcal disease in 1974. This disease may cause a life-threatening infection to your bloodstream. The vaccine is recommended to adolescents 11-18 years old and those 19-21 years of age, where many college freshman will dorm in a residence hall.
- The first pneumococcal vaccine (known as PPSV23) was licensed in the United States in 1977. This vaccine is mainly recommended for any adult of at least 65 years of age.
- Similar to the meningococcal disease, meningitis is an infectious disease of meningococcus bacterium that affects the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (called meninges). The meningitis vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1978.
1978- Louise Joy Brown, the first successful test-tube baby was born in Great Britain. Dr. Patrick Steptoe and Dr. Robert Edwards started working on finding an alternative solution for contraception since 1966. Today we call this process “in vitro fertilization.” Brown is now 32, with a five year old child of her own. She lives outside Bristol with her husband and son. She tries to live a quiet life, working as a postal clerk and for a shipping company.
- Dolly the Sheep, born on July 5, 1996 at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh, Scotland, was the first mammal to be cloned from a somatic (body) cell. Her life began in a test tube, like other cloned animals, until scientists placed the developed embryo (that was Dolly) into a mother sheep. Her successful birth was surprisingly normal, for many cloned animals had neonatal birth complications. As she lived a normal life, Dolly was able to mate with a ram and successfully gave birth to six lambs. Eventually, Dolly was diagnosed with arthritis, and fortunately treated with anti-flammatory drugs. However, on February 14, 2003, care workers found tumors growing in Dolly's chest. This meant Dolly had sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA), a disease where a virus promotes tumor growths in lungs of animals (a previously cloned sheep had died from this disease). It was decided to end Dolly's life, from an overdose of anaesthetics because they did not want her to suffer, that day.
Dolly and her triplets © Roslin Institute
- Scientists were first able to successfully use human skin cells to create embryonic stem cells in 1998, at the University of Wisconsin. This was significant as people became more interested that stem cells have the ability to transform to any cell or tissue that the human body consists of. Using this method, many scientists believed medicine could be transported into patients to treat various diseases. However, this also created much controversy because embryos were destroyed in the process of collecting embryonic stem cells.
46.Claire Lomas is using new emerging technology in her daily activities. What is it? How does it work? -Gavin
Claire Lomas was paralyzed from the chest down, as a result of and equestrian accident. After the accident in 2007, she was told she was never going to walk again. However, in May of 2012, Claire successfully completed the London Marathon in seventeen days using a ReWalk robotic suit. The robotic suit is a bionic exoskeleton that allows her to walk and perform many actions of daily living. The ReWalk system uses a combination of joints, braces, and batteries to sensor movement in the users chest. This computer system then dictates how fast and what direction to walk in. Crutches must be used while using the system for superior balance.
Matt Yen-15. What does the term “obstetrician” mean? Why do you think it got that name? An obstetrician is someone who specializes in care for pregnant women and procedures that deal with birth. Obstetricians work with the pregnant woman for the entire pregnancy to make sure the woman and baby are healthy. I think it got the name because obstetrics deals with female care.
45. What is an Ex-voto? What is the translation of the term? Give an example of an ex-voto.-Gavin
An Ex-Voto is a votive offering to a saint or divinity. A votive offering is an object displayed or deposited without the intention of recovery or use in a sacred place for religious purposes. In Latin, Ex-voto means by vow. An example of an Ex-voto is the Lod Mosaic which is thought to be an Ex-voto expressing someone's gratitude for savior from a shipwreck.
The Lod Mosaic
39. In ancient time people believed that disease result from imbalance of the four bodily "humors". What did they mean by this? Imbalance of humors was thought the causes of all diseases. Humorism is the theory of the makeup and workings of the human body. Divided into four:
1.Blood humor; occur during spring season
2.Yellow Bile; occur during summer season
3. Black Bile; occur during autumn or fall season
4. Phelgm; occur during winter season
warm & moist
courageous, hopeful, amorous
warm & dry
easily angered, bad tempered
cold & dry
cold & moist
40. There is a disease known by three eponyms* , Barlow’s disease, Moeller's disease and Cheadle's disease. What is it? How was it discovered? It is a disease that is caused by lack of vitamin C. Now it is known as Scurvy. Described by Sir Thomas Barlow, it is also included Moeller's disease and Cheadle's disease. The symptoms was found around 15th century. This disease is common among sailors during 15th to 19th 18th centuries. it killed almost two million sailors.
41. This physician developed antiseptic surgical methods, using carbolic acid to clean wounds and surgical instruments. Who is it? Tell me more. Joseph Lister. Born on April 1827 and died on February 1912. He was a British Surgeon and and an antiseptic surgeon who also promoted the idea of strerile surgery. He was also the second man in England who operate in brain tumor. He also developed a method of repairing
with metal wire and improved the technique of mastectomy.
42. This medication was originally derived from the juice of the willow tree bark. There is now a synthetic version. Which medication is it? For what kind of sickness is it used? It is known as Aspirin. It is used for treatment for aches and fever. Native Americans across the Americas relied on it as a staple of their medical treatments, because willows contain salicin, a substance that chemically resembles aspirin. It temporarily relieves headache, stomachache, and other body pain. Salicin is metabolized into salicylic acid in the human body.
34. Who wrote the Patient Bill of Rights? What two things did it address? E.S.
In 1973, the American Hospital Association's House of Delegates adopted the bill. "
Hospitals have many functions to perform, including the enhancement of health sta-tus, health promotion, and the prevention and treatment of injury and disease; the im-mediate and ongoing care and rehabilitation of patients; the education of health professionals, patients, and the community; and research. All these activities must be conducted with an overriding concern for the values and dignity of patients" (Bill of Rights).
Patient Bill of Rights
35. What is a Doula? E.S.
A doula is a professional trained in childbirth who provides emotional, physical and informational support to the mother who is expecting, is experiencing labor, or has recently given birth. Before the labor, a doula is available to talk with the mother about any emotions that she is feeling, how to deal with the upcoming change of events and how to manage the thoughts. During the labor, a doula will try to get the partner really involved and encourage them to participate. They offer comfort with pain relief techniques such as breathing and relaxation exercises, massages and laboring positions.
36. Who is Elizabeth Blackwell? For what is she known for? E.S.
Born in 1821, Elizabeth Blackwell became the first woman to ever recieve an M.D. degree from a medical school.in New York. She also published several important books on the issue of women in medicine, including Medicine as a Profession For Women in 1860 and Address on the Medical Education of Women in 1864. Later in her life, while she was sick, she gave up the practice of medicine.
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
37. Where was the first medical school for women founded? What was it called? E.S.
The first medical school for women was opened by Samuel Gregory in 1848. The twelve women who enrolled didn't graduate until 1850. Later, in 1856, the college changed its name to the New Enlgand Female Medical College. After graduating from New York Medical college, she then joined the New England Female Medical College.
38. Who is Rebecca Lee Crumpler? For what is she known? E.S.
Born in 1831, Rebecca was the first African American woman to earn a M.D. degree.
Rebecca Davis Lee Crumpler graduated from the New England Female Medical College today March 1, 1864 and became on of the two African-American women to practice medicine in New York.
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